Inhibition of Bothrops jararacussu venom activities by Plathymenia reticulata Benth extracts

Research Article

J Venom Res (2011), Vol 2, 52-58

Published online: 28 December 2011

Full Text: (PDF ~1318kb) | (PubMed Central Record HTML)

Nicole M Farrapo †, Gleidy AA Silva †, Karine N Costa †, Magali G Silva †, José C Cogo ‡, Cháriston A Dal Belo ¶, Márcio G dos Santos ¥, Francisco C Groppo §, Yoko Oshima-Franco †*

† University of Sorocaba (UNISO), Rodovia Raposo Tavares km 92.5, Zip code 18023-000 Sorocaba, SP, Brazil

‡ University of Vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP), Av Shishima Hifumi, 2911, Zip code 12.244-000 São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil

¶ Federal University of Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Av Antônio Trilha, 1847, Zip code 97300-000, São Gabriel, RS, Brazil

¥ Federal University of Tocantins, UFT, Post-Graduation Course in Environmental Sciences, PGCiamb Av NS 15 ALC NO 14, 109 Norte, Zip code 77001-090, Palmas, TO, Brazil

§ Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira 901, Zip code 13414-903 Piracicaba, SP, Brazil

*Correspondence to: Yoko Oshima-Franco, E-mail:, Tel: +55 15 2101 7000, Fax: +55 15 2101 7112

Received: 30 July 2011, Revised: 17 November 2011, Accepted: 05 December 2011

© Copyright The Authors


Hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DM), ethyl acetate (EA) and methanol (M) extracts (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4mg/ml) were obtained via Soxhlet from Plathymenia reticulata barks (Pr). These extracts were evaluated against the myotoxicity (58%) and the irreversible in vitro neuromuscular blockade ofBothrops jararacussu (Bjssu) venom (40µg/ml) in a mouse phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparation, by using light-microscopy and conventional myographic techniques. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to access the basic composition of extracts. The efficacy of the extracts was analyzed by Student’s t-test or repeated measures ANOVA. The significance level was set at 5%. The Pr extracts showed a higher polyphenols content (3.75%), from which tannins take part, around 20 times more than flavonoids content (0.16%). Qualitatively, via TLC, DM and EA extracts showed higher tannins concentration than the HEX and M extracts. Pharmacologically, at 0.4mg/ml, DM was more effective (92 ±6.2%) than EA (81.3 ±10%) = HEX, 77.2 ±4.7 %) > M (54 ±10%) against the toxic effects of the venom. Morphologically, DM extract preserved intact 52.8% of the muscle fibers in the presence of the venom. We concluded that P. reticulata extracts are able to inhibit toxic effects of B. jararacussu venom, whose protective mechanism could be mediated by tannins.

KEYWORDS: Bothrops jararacussu , neuromuscular preparation, snake venom, tannin, polyphenol, flavonoid, Plathymenia reticulata