The pharmacokinetics of Iranian scorpion Odonthubuthus doriae venom and the available antivenom

Research Report

J Venom Res (2010), Vol 1, 48-53

Published online: 15 October 2010

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Amir Jalali §*, Sara Moazen §, Mohammad Babaee ‡, Simin Dadashzade ψ, Alireza Droudi δ

§ Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Toxicology Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur
University of Medical Science, Ahvaz, Iran

‡ Radioisotope Unit, Nuclear Energy Organization, Tehran, Iran

ψ Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

δ Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Science, Ahvaz, Iran

*Correspondence to: Amir Jalali, Email:, Tel: +98 611 3738380, Fax: +98 611 3738381

Received: 07 August 2010, Revised: 11 September 2010, Accepted: 27 September 2010

© Copyright The Authors


In Iran intramuscular (IM) administration of antivenoms is used for the treatment of human scorpion envenoming of six medically dangerous scorpion species, including Odonthubuthus doriae(O. doriae). The purpose of the current study is to investigate the efficiency of the intramuscular route and the delay of injection on the neutralizing effect of the available polyvalent antivenom. We compared the pharmacokinetics parameters of O. doriae venom and its antivenom. 5μg 131I-labeled venom and 0.2μl of antivenom were administered via subcutaneous (SC) or IM into rats. Blood samples were taken at various predetermined time intervals during a 24hr period for the venom and a 360min period for the antivenom. The radio-iodination was carried out using the chloramin-T method. The results showed that pharmacokinetic parameters of the venom were T1/2 = 496.53 min; Vd = 1522 ml/kg; Cl = 2.12 ml/kg/min; mean resident residual time (MRT) = 555.77 min, and for the antivenom T1/2 = 902.13 min, Vd = 666.66 ml/kg , Cl = 0.512 ml/kg/min and MRT = 1292min. The total body clearance of the venom is relatively low in agreement with a high mean residence time. Higher AUC and Cmax values for the antivenom as well as its longer residence time indicate that the venom and antivenom are expected to have enough opportunity to interact in the tissue compartments. Over, this study suggests that the intramuscular administration of a single dose of antivenom (2 vials each of 5ml) based on current protocol in Iran is a suitable route for the treatment of envenomation with O. doriae. Prudently, further clinical studies with similar aims need to be carried out to confi rm these findings in human victims.

KEYWORDS: Iranian scorpion, Odonthubuthus doriae , Razi polyvalent antivenom, pharmacokinetic parameters, venom